WHAT YOU WILL VISIT
DURING THE POST CONFERENCE
EXCURSION

DOWNLOAD THE LIST OF PLACES THAT YOU WILL VISIT DURING THE FIELD TRIP

WHAT YOU WILL VISIT DURING THE POST CONFERENCE EXCURSION

DOWNLOAD THE LIST OF PLACES THAT YOU WILL VISIT DURING THE FIELD TRIP

DAY 1
Saturday 29 June

COGOLLO DEL CENGIO

Among the peculiarities of the territory of Altopiano dei Sette Comuni there is the importance from a historical point of view. The route of Monte Cengio leads hikers to explore one of the most spectacular landscapes of World War I.

The location is ideal for those wishing to combine an undemanding with a visit to a place of high historical value, located in a location from which you can admire one of the most beautiful landscapes of the plateau.

The hike is considered easy hiking, walking even by non-experts. The first stretch of the route (access to the top through so-called “muskets”) is not suitable for mountain biking, you can still access the upper part using the road.

It is necessary to have a flashlight given the numerous steps inside tunnels.

THUNDER BASE

Between 1966 and 1977 the Passo Coe – Monte Toraro missile base was active in Malga Zonta, at 1543 m altitude; this was one of the twelve bases that were set up by NATO in the Italian North-East area between the ‘60s and the ‘90s of last century to oppose the Warsaw Pact ones.

Here, today, Base Tuono tells us about the nuclear risk we ran during the Cold War.

When the former launch area was finally demolished and the clearance and re-naturalization of the area began, the  Town of Folgaria decided to preserve one of the three launch areas, the Alpha one, for educational, historical and cultural purposes.

Thanks to the participation of the Autonomous Province of Trento, the cultural support of the Museo Storico del Trentino and the collaboration of the Italian Air Force, after the hangar, bunker, radar and section panel were restored, Base Tuono, as it was called in military communications of the time, was finally born.

DAY 2
Sunday 30 June

MARMOLADA GLACIER

The highest mountain in the Dolomite range of the Alps at 3342 meters, the Marmolada Massif or “group” comprises of a vast northern glacier and a soaring, semicircle of cliffs and peaks on the sunny southern side. Astride the old pre1915 border of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Kingdom of Italy, this icy giant became a major battlefield of the First World War’s Gebirgskreig or Italian front.

Marmolada had all characteristics and dangers unique to high mountain warfare including the thin atmosphere [70% of sea-level at 3,000 meters in altitude]; ice, snow and scree; and frequent blizzards or dense fog banks covering attacks. Avalanches, falling rock and lightening; long range shooting duels, artillery and hand to hand fighting; as well as exposure to extreme low temperatures and high winds killed men in equal numbers. Injuries such as frostbite, snow blindness, altitude sickness and malnutrition caused by the severe climate competed with the usual war wounds, disease and stress- especially for troops that must stay on position and not let down their guard. Patrols, observation posts and assault units resembled mountaineers as much as soldiers. Supply was carried out by backbreaking corvee [on the backs of men and mules] and telepherique [both manpowered and motor driven cable-cars.] Despite being surrounded by frozen water, this vital need of humans was difficult to obtain or store.

Italian strategy — ambitious yet thought feasible — was to control the peaks and passes to eventually flank and cut off the Austrians. With the roads to Bozen [Bolzano] and the Brenner Pass captured, the heartland of the Austro-Hungarian Empire would lay open. With most of their army in Russia, the Austrians concentrated on defending their Empire’s lofty southern flank. On Marmolada, between the Italian and Austrian forces, was a vast no-man’s-land of glacier crevasse and bergschrund or soaring rock cliffs, needle-like arêtes and knife-edge ridges with their blocking “gendarmes.” All these are great challenges for mountaineers defining war on this Alpine front as somewhere between unique and incredible. 

SERAUTA

At 2950 m. a.s.l., at the middle of the cable car of Marmolada, the Evening Monumental Area

In this area the Italian Soldiers lived from May 1916 to November 1917, building a big fort.

These positions that are carved into the rocky mass have been made accessible to visitors. The area of ​​the gun, the shelter, the station of the cableway, the infirmary.

PASSO FEDAIA WAR MUSEUM

The Marmolada glacier, a jealous guardian for nearly a century, has returned little by little considerable evidence of the First World War following its rapid retreat in recent years.

From 1915, Marmolada became the highest battlefield on the entire Dolomite front and one of the highest of the whole war.

Since 2004, Andrea De Bernardin has curated an exhibition that collects First World War artefacts found on the mountain or collected from the homes of the valleys below. The collection consists of about 700 pieces: the sewing kits supplied to every soldier; dog tags; medics’ scalpels; weapons, including a Schwarzlose and a Maxim machine gun, and a 30.5 cm projectile fired from a Penia mortar in Val di Fassa; a field telephone; a still-working Erika typewriter; a trench periscope; and a large display of caps. The theme of the “White War” is evoked from examples of personal equipment.

DAY 3
Monday 1 July

CINQUE TORRI HUT

Cinque Torri, as all the other mountains in the area, are made of Dolomia, with a particular pale grey colour. The group is formed by five towers (which give the name to the mountain) with a maximum elevation of 2.361 m (Torre Grande).

This area was theater of conflicts between Italian and Austro-Hungarian troops during World War I; countless testimonies of the fighting and of the war shelters built by the Italian army are present and have been recently restructured to create interesting historical itineraries.

LAGAZUOI

On 23rd May 1915, the Kingdom of Italy declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The Italian Army occupied Cortina, thus ending four centuries of Hapsburg Empire rule there.

The Austro-Hungarian troops withdrew onto the Lagazuoi to defend the Badia Valley and South Tyrol.

From that moment onward, the mountains of the Lagazuoi 5 Torri area became the theatre of an incredible war fought at high altitude.

The trenches of the two opposing armies wound along the ridges.

Today, thanks to the collaboration of our erstwhile enemies, the Italian and Austro-Hungarian emplacements on the mountains have been restored.

Out if this arose the most widely extended museum of the Great War, comprising the three open-air museums of the Lagazuoi, the 5 Torri and the Sasso di Stria, and the Museum of the Tre Sassi Fort.

FORTE TRE SASSI MUSEUM

The Tre Sassi Fort, at Valparola Pass , is one of the most interesting testimonies to the Great War on the Dolomite front.

It was built in 1897 to defend the southern confines of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and was subsequently modernised in 1910.

After only a few weeks of war, the fortress was hit, being damaged by bombs fired from the 5 Torri, and hence evacuated.

Today the Fort has been restructured and displays the soldiers’ kits and the everyday objects they used.  

DAY 4
Tuesday 2 July

3 CIME DI LAVAREDO

On 23rd May 1915, the Kingdom of Italy declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The Italian Army occupied Cortina, thus ending four centuries of Hapsburg Empire rule there.

The Austro-Hungarian troops withdrew onto the Lagazuoi to defend the Badia Valley and South Tyrol.

From that moment onward, the mountains of the Lagazuoi 5 Torri area became the theatre of an incredible war fought at high altitude.

The trenches of the two opposing armies wound along the ridges.

Today, thanks to the collaboration of our erstwhile enemies, the Italian and Austro-Hungarian emplacements on the mountains have been restored.

Out if this arose the most widely extended museum of the Great War, comprising the three open-air museums of the Lagazuoi, the 5 Torri and the Sasso di Stria, and the Museum of the Tre Sassi Fort.

MONTE PIANA

Monte Piana is one of the most beautiful site to visit in the Dolomites, with its special shape and position that offer a spectacular 360 degrees view towards the most famous mountains around Auronzo di Cadore and Cortina d’Ampezzo – Tre Cime di Lavaredo, Paterno, Cadini di Misurina, Sorapiss, Cristallo, Croda Rossa ecc. – and over the Lake of Misurina at its feet.  Monte Piana is also a special site of memory and history of the tragic events of last century: the World War fought on the Dolomites. Just on this mountain more then 14.000 soldiers died. Nowaday it’s an engaging destination for whom that  wants to visit the Open Air Museum of the First World War , one of the most important witness of the battles fought on these mountains in the years 1915-1917. The museum consists of trench warfares, tunnels and emplacements located on the top of the mountain. The open air museum was realized thanks to the first work of the austrian Colonel Walter Schaumann, with his group “Friends of the Dolomites”, and the following constant restoring and maintenance works of the “Friends of Monte Piana” and of the “Monte Piana Foundation”.

VAJONT LANDSLIDE

The Vajont Dam is a disused dam, completed in 1959 in the valley of the Vajont River under Monte Toc, in the municipality of Erto e Casso, 100 km north of Venice, Italy. One of the tallest dams in the world, it is 262 metres high, 27 metres wide and 22.11 metres thick at the base and 191 metres wide and 3.4 metres thick at the top.

On 9 October 1963, during initial filling, a massive landslide caused a man-made megatsunami in the lake in which 50 million cubic metres of water overtopped the dam in a wave 250 metres high, leading to 1,910 deaths and the complete destruction of several villages and towns.

The construction company and the Italian government initially disregarded early warning signs and reports describing the geological instability of Monte Toc on the southern side of the basin. The eventual attempt to safely control the landslide by lowering the lake level was too late. The dam remained almost intact and two thirds of the water was retained behind it, but the landslide was much larger than expected and the impact brought massive flooding and destruction to the Piave valley below.

DAY 5
Wednesday 3 July

MOUNT S. MICHELE

Mount San Michele, 275 metres high, the main Austro-Hungarian defence bastion on the Isonzo Karst, was fiercely contested between Italians and Austro-Hungarians already in the first year of the First World War due to its important position (the highest on the Karst Plateau).

In 1916 it was bloodily conquered and desperately protected by the heroic Italian infantrymen against the repeated and fierce enemy attacks: for this reason, in 1922 the top of Mount San Michele was declared a “Monumental Area”.

In the Monumental Area you will find several interesting constructions, some of which can be partly visited, such as the Cave of General Lukachich (currently cannot be visited), the Schönburg Tunnel and the Gun Tunnel of the Third Army.

Moreover, you will have the chance to visit the Historical Museum of Mount San Michele, which features war relics of that period and a rich photo and map documentation.

In the central room of the museum you will discover – in chronological order – the events of the six battles fought on Mount San Michele and the horrifying poison-gas attack of 26th June 1916 (the first poison-gas attack on the Italian front).

On the other hand, a side room recalls the reasons for which the 19 Gold Medals for Military Valour were awarded to the soldiers who died on Mount San Michele; moreover, other photographs, relics and documents celebrate the Fallen.

REDIPUGLIA

The Memorial of Redipuglia is Italy’s largest and most majestic memorial dedicated to the soldiers who fell in the Great War. Built on the slopes of Mt. Sei Busi and designed by architect Giovanni Greppi and sculptor Giannino Castiglioni, it was opened on 18th September 1938 after ten years of construction. This massive monument, also known as Memorial “of the Hundred Thousands”, accommodates the remains of 100.187 soldiers who fell in battle in the surrounding areas; some of them had been initially buried on Colle Sant’Elia nearby.

Strongly advocated by the fascist regime, this monument intended to celebrate the sacrifice of the fallen soldiers as well as provide a dignified resting place to those fighters who could not be buried in the cemetery of the Undefeated. It is structured on three levels, symbolising the army descending from the sky, led by its Commander towards the Path of Heroes. On the top, three crosses evoke Mt. Golgotha and the crucifixion of Christ.

Click on the label with the days to see the contents

COGOLLO DEL CENGIO

Among the peculiarities of the territory of Altopiano dei Sette Comuni there is the importance from a historical point of view. The route of Monte Cengio leads hikers to explore one of the most spectacular landscapes of World War I.

The location is ideal for those wishing to combine an undemanding with a visit to a place of high historical value, located in a location from which you can admire one of the most beautiful landscapes of the plateau.

The hike is considered easy hiking, walking even by non-experts. The first stretch of the route (access to the top through so-called “muskets”) is not suitable for mountain biking, you can still access the upper part using the road.

It is necessary to have a flashlight given the numerous steps inside tunnels.


THUNDER BASE

Between 1966 and 1977 the Passo Coe – Monte Toraro missile base was active in Malga Zonta, at 1543 m altitude; this was one of the twelve bases that were set up by NATO in the Italian North-East area between the ‘60s and the ‘90s of last century to oppose the Warsaw Pact ones.

Here, today, Base Tuono tells us about the nuclear risk we ran during the Cold War.

When the former launch area was finally demolished and the clearance and re-naturalization of the area began, the  Town of Folgaria decided to preserve one of the three launch areas, the Alpha one, for educational, historical and cultural purposes.

Thanks to the participation of the Autonomous Province of Trento, the cultural support of the Museo Storico del Trentino and the collaboration of the Italian Air Force, after the hangar, bunker, radar and section panel were restored, Base Tuono, as it was called in military communications of the time, was finally born.

MARMOLADA GLACIER

The highest mountain in the Dolomite range of the Alps at 3342 meters, the Marmolada Massif or “group” comprises of a vast northern glacier and a soaring, semicircle of cliffs and peaks on the sunny southern side. Astride the old pre1915 border of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Kingdom of Italy, this icy giant became a major battlefield of the First World War’s Gebirgskreig or Italian front.

Marmolada had all characteristics and dangers unique to high mountain warfare including the thin atmosphere [70% of sea-level at 3,000 meters in altitude]; ice, snow and scree; and frequent blizzards or dense fog banks covering attacks. Avalanches, falling rock and lightening; long range shooting duels, artillery and hand to hand fighting; as well as exposure to extreme low temperatures and high winds killed men in equal numbers. Injuries such as frostbite, snow blindness, altitude sickness and malnutrition caused by the severe climate competed with the usual war wounds, disease and stress- especially for troops that must stay on position and not let down their guard. Patrols, observation posts and assault units resembled mountaineers as much as soldiers. Supply was carried out by backbreaking corvee [on the backs of men and mules] and telepherique [both manpowered and motor driven cable-cars.] Despite being surrounded by frozen water, this vital need of humans was difficult to obtain or store.

Italian strategy — ambitious yet thought feasible — was to control the peaks and passes to eventually flank and cut off the Austrians. With the roads to Bozen [Bolzano] and the Brenner Pass captured, the heartland of the Austro-Hungarian Empire would lay open. With most of their army in Russia, the Austrians concentrated on defending their Empire’s lofty southern flank. On Marmolada, between the Italian and Austrian forces, was a vast no-man’s-land of glacier crevasse and bergschrund or soaring rock cliffs, needle-like arêtes and knife-edge ridges with their blocking “gendarmes.” All these are great challenges for mountaineers defining war on this Alpine front as somewhere between unique and incredible.


SERAUTA

At 2950 m. a.s.l., at the middle of the cable car of Marmolada, the Evening Monumental Area

In this area the Italian Soldiers lived from May 1916 to November 1917, building a big fort.

These positions that are carved into the rocky mass have been made accessible to visitors. The area of ​​the gun, the shelter, the station of the cableway, the infirmary.


PASSO FEDAIA WAR MUSEUM

The Marmolada glacier, a jealous guardian for nearly a century, has returned little by little considerable evidence of the First World War following its rapid retreat in recent years.

From 1915, Marmolada became the highest battlefield on the entire Dolomite front and one of the highest of the whole war.

Since 2004, Andrea De Bernardin has curated an exhibition that collects First World War artefacts found on the mountain or collected from the homes of the valleys below. The collection consists of about 700 pieces: the sewing kits supplied to every soldier; dog tags; medics’ scalpels; weapons, including a Schwarzlose and a Maxim machine gun, and a 30.5 cm projectile fired from a Penia mortar in Val di Fassa; a field telephone; a still-working Erika typewriter; a trench periscope; and a large display of caps. The theme of the “White War” is evoked from examples of personal equipment.

CINQUE TORRI HUT

Cinque Torri, as all the other mountains in the area, are made of Dolomia, with a particular pale grey colour. The group is formed by five towers (which give the name to the mountain) with a maximum elevation of 2.361 m (Torre Grande).

This area was theater of conflicts between Italian and Austro-Hungarian troops during World War I; countless testimonies of the fighting and of the war shelters built by the Italian army are present and have been recently restructured to create interesting historical itineraries.


LAGAZUOI

On 23rd May 1915, the Kingdom of Italy declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The Italian Army occupied Cortina, thus ending four centuries of Hapsburg Empire rule there.

The Austro-Hungarian troops withdrew onto the Lagazuoi to defend the Badia Valley and South Tyrol.

From that moment onward, the mountains of the Lagazuoi 5 Torri area became the theatre of an incredible war fought at high altitude.

The trenches of the two opposing armies wound along the ridges.

Today, thanks to the collaboration of our erstwhile enemies, the Italian and Austro-Hungarian emplacements on the mountains have been restored.

Out if this arose the most widely extended museum of the Great War, comprising the three open-air museums of the Lagazuoi, the 5 Torri and the Sasso di Stria, and the Museum of the Tre Sassi Fort.


FORTE TRE SASSI MUSEUM

The Tre Sassi Fort, at Valparola Pass , is one of the most interesting testimonies to the Great War on the Dolomite front.

It was built in 1897 to defend the southern confines of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and was subsequently modernised in 1910.

After only a few weeks of war, the fortress was hit, being damaged by bombs fired from the 5 Torri, and hence evacuated.

Today the Fort has been restructured and displays the soldiers’ kits and the everyday objects they used.

3 CIME DI LAVAREDO

On 23rd May 1915, the Kingdom of Italy declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The Italian Army occupied Cortina, thus ending four centuries of Hapsburg Empire rule there.

The Austro-Hungarian troops withdrew onto the Lagazuoi to defend the Badia Valley and South Tyrol.

From that moment onward, the mountains of the Lagazuoi 5 Torri area became the theatre of an incredible war fought at high altitude.

The trenches of the two opposing armies wound along the ridges.

Today, thanks to the collaboration of our erstwhile enemies, the Italian and Austro-Hungarian emplacements on the mountains have been restored.

Out if this arose the most widely extended museum of the Great War, comprising the three open-air museums of the Lagazuoi, the 5 Torri and the Sasso di Stria, and the Museum of the Tre Sassi Fort.


MONTE PIANA

Monte Piana is one of the most beautiful site to visit in the Dolomites, with its special shape and position that offer a spectacular 360 degrees view towards the most famous mountains around Auronzo di Cadore and Cortina d’Ampezzo – Tre Cime di Lavaredo, Paterno, Cadini di Misurina, Sorapiss, Cristallo, Croda Rossa ecc. – and over the Lake of Misurina at its feet.Monte Piana is also a special site of memory and history of the tragic events of last century: the World War fought on the Dolomites. Just on this mountain more then 14.000 soldiers died. Nowaday it’s an engaging destination for whom thatwants to visit the Open Air Museum of the First World War , one of the most important witness of the battles fought on these mountains in the years 1915-1917. The museum consists of trench warfares, tunnels and emplacements located on the top of the mountain. The open air museum was realized thanks to the first work of the austrian Colonel Walter Schaumann, with his group “Friends of the Dolomites”, and the following constant restoring and maintenance works of the “Friends of Monte Piana” and of the “Monte Piana Foundation”.


VAJONT LANDSLIDE

The Vajont Dam is a disused dam, completed in 1959 in the valley of the Vajont River under Monte Toc, in the municipality of Erto e Casso, 100 km north of Venice, Italy. One of the tallest dams in the world, it is 262 metres high, 27 metres wide and 22.11 metres thick at the base and 191 metres wide and 3.4 metres thick at the top.

On 9 October 1963, during initial filling, a massive landslide caused a man-made megatsunami in the lake in which 50 million cubic metres of water overtopped the dam in a wave 250 metres high, leading to 1,910 deaths and the complete destruction of several villages and towns.

The construction company and the Italian government initially disregarded early warning signs and reports describing the geological instability of Monte Toc on the southern side of the basin. The eventual attempt to safely control the landslide by lowering the lake level was too late. The dam remained almost intact and two thirds of the water was retained behind it, but the landslide was much larger than expected and the impact brought massive flooding and destruction to the Piave valley below.

MOUNT S. MICHELE

Mount San Michele, 275 metres high, the main Austro-Hungarian defence bastion on the Isonzo Karst, was fiercely contested between Italians and Austro-Hungarians already in the first year of the First World War due to its important position (the highest on the Karst Plateau).

In 1916 it was bloodily conquered and desperately protected by the heroic Italian infantrymen against the repeated and fierce enemy attacks: for this reason, in 1922 the top of Mount San Michele was declared a “Monumental Area”.

In the Monumental Area you will find several interesting constructions, some of which can be partly visited, such as the Cave of General Lukachich (currently cannot be visited), the Schönburg Tunnel and the Gun Tunnel of the Third Army.

Moreover, you will have the chance to visit the Historical Museum of Mount San Michele, which features war relics of that period and a rich photo and map documentation.

In the central room of the museum you will discover – in chronological order – the events of the six battles fought on Mount San Michele and the horrifying poison-gas attack of 26th June 1916 (the first poison-gas attack on the Italian front).

On the other hand, a side room recalls the reasons for which the 19 Gold Medals for Military Valour were awarded to the soldiers who died on Mount San Michele; moreover, other photographs, relics and documents celebrate the Fallen.


REDIPUGLIA

The Memorial of Redipuglia is Italy’s largest and most majestic memorial dedicated to the soldiers who fell in the Great War. Built on the slopes of Mt. Sei Busi and designed by architect Giovanni Greppi and sculptor Giannino Castiglioni, it was opened on 18th September 1938 after ten years of construction. This massive monument, also known as Memorial “of the Hundred Thousands”, accommodates the remains of 100.187 soldiers who fell in battle in the surrounding areas; some of them had been initially buried on Colle Sant’Elia nearby.

Strongly advocated by the fascist regime, this monument intended to celebrate the sacrifice of the fallen soldiers as well as provide a dignified resting place to those fighters who could not be buried in the cemetery of the Undefeated. It is structured on three levels, symbolising the army descending from the sky, led by its Commander towards the Path of Heroes. On the top, three crosses evoke Mt. Golgotha and the crucifixion of Christ.

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